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NITSCHKE BROa. 
ftlank Book Manulacturers. 




AND TEACHERS' GUIDE. 



Entered at the Post-Office of 
New York, N. Y., as Second-Class Matter. 



NEW YORK. JANUARY. 1884. 



Vol. VIII.— No. 1. 



Lessons in Practical Writing. 



By a. H. HiNMAN. 

Copyrighted by A. H. Hinmi 






Skill in any a 
directed efforts, 
writing lies in 



directed by the inind. 
is the result of properly 
The secret of success in 
careful study of correct 
observance of them 
during practicp. We have full faith that 
if all who desire improved penmanship will 
study and carry out the instructions in this 
and future lessons they will be well re- 
warded. Fair writing, like " Fair Lady," 
will not be won by faint heart or indiffer- 
ence. The many little attentions suggested 

tion gives power, and as an aid to writing 
the feet should always be flat upon the 
floor. The body should lean slightly for- 
ward and to the left about five degrees 
from perpendicular, with the breast about 
one inch from the desk. The seat and desk 
should be adapted to the needs of the stu- 
dent. The top of the desk should be even 
with the elbow of the writer, as his arm 
hangs at his side. The position for copy- 
books upon narrow desks is the right side 
at the desk. 

Tar Copy Books 




For writing upon large books, the left 
side is best. 

PD5il(on for BDok-Keepers. 




/ . -- 

While writing, the eyes shqujd be fro 



twelve to eighteen inches from the point of 
the pen, the distance depending upon the 
size of the person. The light falling upon 
the paper should come from the left side of 
the writer, and in the evening should be 
lamplight instead of gas. The position of 
the riglitarm should he well out from the 
body, while the hands should come to- 
gether on the paper at a right angle well 
away from the breast. The left should 
hold the paper, and the other the pen. 

In holding the pen, the back of the 
thumb should be bent nearly to a right 
angle, and the second finger bent so as to 
bring it nearly opposite the thumb. 

The forefingers should reach beyond all 
other fingers, the end being about one inch 
from the point of the pen. The forefinger 
nail, the lower part of the thumb and wrist, 
should he upon a straight line, and with 
adults one inch above the paper. The 
second and third fingers sliould always be 
separated, while the third and fourth fin- 
gers should bend beneath the hand never to 
rest, but always to slide with a lightness of 
touch equal to that of the pen. The pen- 
holder should cross opposite the knuckles, 
the upper end pointing at or a little below 
the right shoulder. The penholder will 
balance better iu the hand by being short- 
ened one inch hack of the knuckles. The 
penholder should be held lightly between 
the thumb and fingers, gripping it only at 
the instant of making a shade. Both ribs 
of tlie penholder should rest evenly upon 
the paper, while the more erect the pen is 
held the finer will be the line. The pen- 
holder should be of light wood, with the 
pen-clasp always firm upon it. 

As the above instructions are presented 
as reliable aids to good writing, it may be 
of value to some readers to leam the re- 
sults of their violation. When the feet are 
crossed or placed in an awkward position, 
they do not give that firm and natural sup- 
port to the body which is essential to good 
writing. When sitting too far from the 
desk and leaning forward too much, the 
weight of the boiiy is apt to be supported 
in part by the right-arm, which interferes 
with ease and freedom of movement. Too 
much leaning may result from a desk too 
low, or seat too higli ; or, an uneasy and 
unnatural position of the hands and arms 
may result from a desk too high, or seat 
too low, cramped writing being the result. 
Throwing the head well over to the left, 
often deceives one into being pleased with 
his writing during its execution, but disap- 
pointed when viewing the writing squarcdy 
before the eyes. The head should, there- 
fore, he upon a line with the spine. Where 
the hands do not como ne.ir together an 
easy support of the body is not obtained ; 
and when the hands are brought too near 
the breast the movements of the arms and 
hands are impeded. When the tiumb and 
second fingers are placed upon the pen- 
holder nearly straight or without heiug well 
bent, their movements are weak and feeble, 
and easy finger movement is absolutely 
impossible; while with the thumb and 
secoud fingers well bent, they are in the 
best position for straight and easy action. 
Tbe thumb well bent, resting against the 



sides of the handle, gives the power to 
make strong upward strokes in long letters 
with ease, simply by straightening the 
thumb. The sliding upon tbe nail of the 
littJe finger is practiced as successfully by 
skillful penmen as where two nails touch 
the paper. All experience proves the fact 
that, however difficult to acquire, correct 
peuholding is absolutely necefsary for suc- 
cess in producing easy and correct writing. 
The dropping of the wrist near to or 
upon the desk prevents the benefit of the 
muscular movement. This movement is 
most effective when the wrist is raised so 
as to bring the rest near the elbow. When 
the penholder does not point at or near the 
right shoulder, the hand is turned over too 
far to the right, bringing the pen's poict 
upon the paper, so as to cause them to 
move sideways. This produces imperfect 
lines and shades — besides, forces tbe fingers 
to do the writing without the aid of the 
muscular movement. The gripping of the 
pen prevents the limber action of the fin- 
gers required to produce the light touch 
necessary for the clean cut, smooth, hair 
lines so effective in fine penmanship. Be- 
sides, gripping the pen soon causes the 
head to ache, and is the main ciuse of 
writers' cramp. Au easy cure for gripping 
the pen consists in wrapping twine around 
tbe penholder where the fingers rest till its 
thiclcness equals that of a blackboard cray- 
on. Turning the band over to the right, 
while writing, is easily corrected by tying 
a six-inch pencil or stick across the palm 
of the hand, allowing it to project to the 
right one inch. 

Movements in writing are of four kinds : 
Finger, Muscular, Combined, Whoharm. 

The finger movement consists in extending 
and contracting the thumb, second and 
third fingers. This movement is used to 
advantage in very small writing, such as is 
used upon carefully written ladies' cards. 
The long, straight lines in loop letters, and 
letters ji, t, and d, are made with more pre- 
cision by contracting the fingers than with 
any other movement. 

7ic muscular movement is produced by 
action of the muscle near the elbow, as 
1 in the engraving of the arm and hand. 




This movement is used to advantage in 
very rapid business-writine. 

The combined movement is the result of a 
combined or simultaneous action of the 
finger and muscular movement, and is the 
chief movement used by the most skillful 
penmen. 

The wholearm movement is produced by 
lifting tbe forearm, and swiuging the hand 
and pen from the shoulder. This move- 
ment is used in forming large, bold capitals, 
and is aided in its development by practice 
with crayon upon the blackboard, as black- 
board writing is of necessity produced by 
the wholearm movement. 

According to Roman letters, from which 



original script or writing was derived, the 
general proportions of a letter are, 3 by 4 
— three measures in width by four in 
length. This proportion should, in our 
opinion, be recognized as the standard 
length and width of one space in writing. 
As written letters slant to the right, the 
correct slant may be ascertained by draw- 
ing the left and top sides of a square ; then 
dividing the top line into three equal parts, 
and draw a slanting line, as in example No. 
] below. 






Ex. No. 2 represents one space, or the 
opening between two slanting straight lines 
placed three-fourths of their length apart. 

Ex. No. ;J shows the letter n occupying 
three spares. The general direction of 
curved lines is seen, in n, to be diagonally 
across a space ; the spacing between letters 
may be seen in the M'ords that follow. 

In Ex. No. 4 the letters are one space 
apart. In No. 5 there is one and one-third 
spaces between letters. In No. 6 there are 
two spaces between the letters. The spac- 
ing between letters should always be uni- 
form, but according to the taste of the 
writer. Practice upon long words widely 
spaced between letters tends greatly to de- 
velop a free lateral movement. But care 
must be taken to make the letters correctly. 

In another lesson will be presented an 
alphabet with the general proportions of 
letters, one space, or three by four, as 
above. 



Send Specimens and Questions. 

It may be of future interest and advan- 
tage to all of our readers who purpose to 
make a special effort for improvement of 
their writing, under the tuition of Prof. 
Hiuman's course of lessons, to forward 
specimens of their present writing, to be 
placed on file for future comparison and 
reference. We would suggest tliat they 
be written as follows : 

" This is a fair specimen of my writing 
before practicing from the lessons given by 
Prof. Hinman through the columns of the 
Penman's Art Jowrnal," 

Give plainly the name and address. 

We are also requested by Prof. Hinman 
to say that he will take pleasure in answer- 
ing, through the Journal, any questions 
pertaining to practical \\Titing which may 
may be sent to him during the continuance 
of his course of lessons. All specintenB of 
writiug, and such questions should bo ad- 
dressed to Prof. A. H. Hioman, Worcester, 
Mass. 



.^^ 



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> ove cut 18 pholo-engravfd from an original dwign executed at the office of lh« JouilNAl., and ia given as a specimen of pen-drawing and lettering. The aljove design has been primed, in 
nne style, on Bristol-board, writing and bond paper ; size, 11 x 14. The Bristol-board is for framing, and the paper for rolling or folding. It is also printed upon a line quality of Bristol- 
oarrt lor framing, 17x22. This design is belisved to be the most artistic and tasty form yet published for a Marriage Certificate. Single copies of size 11x14 mailed for 50 cents i 
JOx,K, SI. Free as a premium with the JornNAi. Kiiber ■;,. o;^e„ 



,^^ 



Mill- "-'^i^JSl^ ' ^ -'.-— ^-^ 

No cut of this picture is given, owing to the large size of the original picture, which 
prevents a successful reduction to a size eultable for these pages. The original picture 
whtch was exhibited at the Centennial Exposition, and is now to be seen at the office of 
the JOURNAI,, ,s 32x48 inches in size, and was designed and executed witb a pen b, 
u. 1. Ames. It embraces the two great Charters of American Liberty, the Declaration 
of Independence, Proclamation of Emancipation, witli portraits of Washington and Lin- 
coln, and twentytwo pictorial scenes illustrative of the leading national events and im- 
provements of the century past. 

The growth and improvements of the country are strikingly represented bv two in- 
genious and skillfully drawn landscape pictures: one, "1776," presents an interminable 
wilderness, broken here and there by small pioneer settlements; the other, '■ 1876 " pre- 

exnibiting a populous country, great cities, railroads, canals, lines of telegraph, bridges, 
manufectones, ship yards, public and private institutions, forts, ligbt-honses, commercei 

„n.„^°°°7'"^"*.*''° "'™ P'"'"™ '" ' ''"''"■ '«"' «"'"i"i"g through it, forming 
nnfiT'l '"°'°"''' '™°'''" ''™'"''"' "'»«" •"■" floral work, which i,;ite» and 

effot 7 P,""°"',™P'"-""f '» ">e whole work a remarkably unique and pictorial 
eflect No desoriphou can be given in this limited space to do it justice. It must be 
Been to be oompreh ended. 

home?n''tb'!!T'! '" r "^ '."" :"'""' "'"' '''°"''' """" " P'""- i° ""T .choolroom and 
home in the land. Thousands of these pictures have been sold by agents at $2 each. 

s from the press and eminent men : 



The following are a few of the many < 



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nnial production w 


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grand; the 


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Dmanililp, 


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knbly ingenioui an 
CmUnnial Weloorw 


dbeaoU 


ful picture." 


" It I« the mo 




kabl. prod 


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Brooklyn Daily 


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most meritoriZs* 


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■, Wiwhlugton, 1>. C. 



Responsibility for Mail. 

The riek of Betiding properly directed 
matter by mail is very Blight; and in all 
cases where the remitter will hand the eamii 
to the postmaaler fcr examination beforo 
sealing, we will he responsible for losses; 
and on the statement of the postmaBter 
that he saw the money inclosed and duly 

ceived by us. Persons directing books and 
packages to be sent by mail may have the 
same regiatorod by sitnply remitting ten 
cents extra. All such packages are sent at 
the risk of the person who, orders. 



The January Issue Exhausted. 

So unexpectedly numerous have been 
subscribers since January, who wished to 
begin with the year, that the several thou- 
sand copies reserved for back numbers have 
been entirely exhausted ; but in order that 
the course of writing-lessons by Prof, Hia- 
man, which began in that number, may still 
be complete to those who may in future wish 
to begin with the year, we have here re- 
printed that portion of the January number 
containing the lesson, together with cuts 
showing copies, reduced in size, of six of 
our premiums, viz., the Bounding Stag, 
Spread Eagle, Garfield Memorial, Lord's 
Prayer, Family Record, and Marriage Cer- 
tificate. 

Agents and others who desire to repre- 
sent what the premiuina are can secure 
extra copies of this sheet. The copies 
here represented are greatly reduced in size 
from those given as premiums, and hence 
present a very much inferior appearance. 
The premium-sheets are all printed, in the 
finest style, on heavy plate-paper, and con- 
stitute a series of the finest and most inter- 
esting pen-pictures that have ever been re- 
produced in this country. 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The fullnwiug we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of 1878 but 
December; all for 1879, except January, 
May and Novtmber ; all numbers for 1880 ; 
all numbers for 1881 ; all for 1882, except 
June; all for 1883, \nxl January. It will 
be noted that while Mr. Spencer's wridng- 
lessims began with May, the second lesson 
was in the July number. Ouly a tew copies 
of several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that pers')n8 desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1 883, will be mailed 
for $4, or any of the oumbera at 10 centi 



A|{ I .-lOlIKNAL 



Penr 



The 
I's Art Journal 

Hae now altaiued to the fourth 
nuinher o( it8 eighth vohime, 
and readied a circulation of 
over I. "i.OOn copies monthly. It 
is amone the finest |iriDted and 
best illustrated papers of the 
world. Every number will cou- 
taio sixteen pHges, the eize of 
Harper's Illustrated Weekli/. 
In each will be a leseon in 

eral specimens from tiie pens of 
our leading tuasters, as well as 
from amateur penmen. There 
will also he carefully written 
essays upon topics ot general 
interest, and a select miscellaQy 
pertaining to art, science, litera- 
ture, humorous and educational 

Terms and Premiums. 

With the first aumbpr of the 
Journal each subscriber who 
remits $1 is entitled to receive, 
free, a choice of the following 
premiums : 

First. "Ames's Guide to Self- 
Instruction in Practical and Ar- 
tistic Penmanship," which is a 
handsome work of 64 pages, 
giving examples for flourishing 
and lettering. Second. The Cen 
tennial Picture of Progress, 22 \ 
28, which is one of the most in 
teresting and artistic pen pu 
tures ever issued, giving a pic- 
torial representatioD^of changes 
wrought in our country during 
the one hundred years following 
the Declaration of Independ 
enee. Third. The Boundmg 
Stag, which is an elegant speci- 
men of nourishing and lettering, 
24x32 inches in size, and on 
fine heavy plate-paper. Fourth. 
The Spread Eagle — a beauti- 
fully flourished design, same size 
as Stag. Ftfth. The Garfield 
Memorial, which is an elaborate 
and beautiful specimen of ar- 
tistic pen-work, 19 x24 Sixth 
The Lord's Prayer same size as 
the Memorial, is an elegant and 
popular pen- picture Seventh 
and Eighth. A Family Record 
or Marriage Certificate eacli 
18x22. Also, very attractive 
and valuable publications 

Liberal Terms to Agents 

Who should Surscribe tor 
THE "Journal.' 
Every lady or gentleman whu 
would make an effort for the im- 
provement of their writing at 
home or in their place of busi- 

Every teacher and pupil of 
writing in oar schools. 

Every parent who has eons or 
daughters whom he would have 
become more interested or effi- 
cient in their writing. 

Every school officer who 
would be familiar with the high- 
est staudards of writing and best 
methods for its instruction. 

Every admirer of good prac- 
tical or artistic penmanship. 



Writing-Ruler. 

The Writing-Ruler has he- 
come a sUndard article with 
those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical wri- 
ting. It is to the writer what 
the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing- Kuler is 
a reliable penmanship chart and 
compass, sent by the Journal 
on receipt of 30 cents. 




An 1 -JonitNAL 



Comments 
of the Press on the 



"Journal ^^ ^ ^^ 

telow we quote fr n a o^~^>j^^^ 
of the many h ghly •^iJ'ih' 



Jujt .u h h Dga V siBc 



complimentary 
which the press of th 
try haa been pleased to be «^ 
7 upon the Journal 



/g) ; . s belmu m »arlulio«„a.,..i,o„. 

y- J"^ / f\<: ' • uyi,n.«Wiop,p„.„d 

-L^ "f W > Jj^ . 1» o b ,bly o<.mm«d.d. 




The aboTB cut is photo-engraved from an original pen-a.Td-inrSgn, 32x28, executed M theTtlir'oMhe'jouKNAL. Copie, wrfu'p'uTd" ™., „, ba.d '.;^" 
have been finely printed on Btietol-board, 18x22. A copy i, given free, a. a premium, with the JouRNiL. Price, by r^tlc „l.ia p,.l..b,p „d„". 
mail. 5U centB. Spiiii for Agept'a Circular . " ot the best teachers Id America 

in do by simply lubsorib- 




, °-"si free, as a premium, with the "Journal." 

Umde „ a book of 64 large pages, elegantly printed on the finest quality of plate-paper, an, 
txcluiimly to malruction and copies for plain writing, off hand flourishing and lettering. We are sure that no 
other work, of near-ly equal cost, is now before the public that will render as efficient aid to either teacher or 
learner, in all the departments of th. penman's an, as will this. Thirty-two pages are devoted to inslruolion 
and copies for plain writing. Fourteen pages to the principle, and examples for flourishing. Sixteen pages 
to alphabet., package-marking, and monograms. Price, by mail : in paper cover, 75 cent. • handsomely 
bound m slifi ccvers 81. Given free (in paper), a, a premium with the JotmiiAI, one year, for «1 ; full 

na ^m .t,n cover, for J1.2.,. Live sg.nls wanted iu every town in America, to whom liberal discount, 
will be given. Bo h the JoLllNAL and book are things that take everywhere. With them agents can make 
more money, with less effort, than with any other publication they handle. 



ably edited by I 
moDthly. i 



Comments on "Ames's New Compendium of Artistic Penmanship." 




of th, peim,«u', arl .7,7 I.?, T P"-"'-^.. wl...!. .. ,imT.r.ally acknowledged l„ be ibe mo.t comprehen.ive and practical guide, in tbe enlir, rauge 

inch plale, I, conlain. n Z? , commercial de.igo., engroe.ed reeololion., memorial,, cerlifical.,, title pages, etc., etc.: in all, 8EV1MTV 11x14 

sender of a club oi ."'."». "b.cribe™Tnd'«i° T,'J "T'"" °/"°w 'i" ""! "°' °' ^ P"'"""""' P— '■''•'■ P™'. b^ "■«". »5; mailed free, a. a premium, to 
at liberty to return it and we » llTefund ,„' ,h m th ril" d" '*'" '' ''' '°^°°'' °° ™°'''" °^ "" ''°°''' *" '"""'"«"'' ™"^ "' ""^ '•■'» 




TheBe cute represent one each of the large and Binall currenoj notes for use in conducting actual bueiueBS trans 
oial schools The currencj is printed on good bank-note paper, and in all the desired denoniir 
Circulars giving full information mailed on re()ue8t. 










'IrO. 



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The above cuts are photo-engraved from pen-and-ink copy executed at the office ef the Journal, and are given as specimens of commercial work. 
Orders for similar work received and promptly fllled. Estimates given on'request.